1

What’s Agriculture?

It’s called production of herbal and animal products, increasing their quality and productivity, storage of these products at proper conditions, processing and evaluating and marketing them.

2

What’s Organic Agriculture?

It’s the alternative means of production for re-establishment of natural balance caused by incorrect applications in the ecological system, containing production systems not damaging human health and environment, where chemical agricultural pesticides and hormones are not used, referring to use of such methods as organic fertilisation, alternation, soil protection, increasing resistance of plants, targeting not only increase of product quantity but also increase of product quality at production.

3

What’s Soilless Agriculture?

The soil is replaced by the nutrients impregnated by solution prepared via organic and inorganic materials needed by the type of plant; pearlite, vermiculite or rock wool. Irrigation is provided by means of dripping or natural evaporation to the extent needed by the plant.

4

What Are The Organizations Supporting The Agriculture?

• General Directorate of Agricultural Enterprises (TİGEM)
• General Directorate of Rural Services
• Soil Products Office (TMO)
• General Directorate of Agricultural Reform
• General Directorate of Protection and Control General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development

5

What’s Agricultural Protection?

It’s called the entire actions taken against weeds, pests and diseases, limiting herbal production for increasing agricultural production and quality.

6

What Are The Types Of Agricultural Protection?

Biological Protection: The actions taken for reducing the intensity of bugs, disease factors and weeds damaging cultivated plants by using their natural enemies surviving by eating them.

Chemical Protection: Means of protection provided via toxic chemical drugs against live beings and weeds damaging the plants.

7

What Are The Equipments Used At Agriculture?

Baler: The machine that enables compressing, packing and fastening the animal feed such as plant trefoil reaped previously and dried in the field or materials such as grain stalks left in the field after harvest with a combine harvester. Therefore, handling and storage of the material are performed in a shorter time with less cost. There are types bailing in cylindrical or rectangular form.

Hoeing Machine: Also named as hoer or rotary hoeing machine. It’s used for cultivation of plants seeded in wide gaps like cotton, sunflower, corn, soya, sugar beet, tomato. Machine ensures purification of soil from weeds via hoeing, prevention of water loss by reducing evaporation of groundwater, aeration of soil by mixing thus creation of an appropriate environment for development of plant roots.

Chisel: Used for processing the soil without plough in the field after harvest. Breaks the upper crust formed at the bottom of plough due to long legs. Processes low clod soil during arid and summer months when plough processing can’t be performed.

Disc Harrow: Directly prepares the field for second planting or winter planting without presence of another agricultural machine by processing clod free soil up to a depth of 20 cm according to climate conditions after summer product harvest.

Subsoiler: A hard and impermeable layer, called "plow pan", is created in the soil as a result of processing the soil at same depth for many years. This layer decreases the product efficiency by blocking root development of the plant. Also erosion can occur by means of surface flow of the water due to this layer. Subsoiler is used for breaking this hard and impermeable layer. It has fixed or vibrating type of processing feet.

Transplanter: Some plants are reproduced via tuber, bulb, cutting, seed or sapling. Such plants are pricked via planter. Transplanters are named as eggplant, pepper, cabbage, tomato transplanter depending on type of the plant. Machine is equipped with planting unit consisting of a groove opening foot, special disks or wheels. Seeds are dropped automatically to the open grooves. Roots are covered with soil via covering assembly and irrigated.

Cultivator: Used for processing the soil without plough in the field after harvest. Breaks the upper crust formed at the bottom of plough due to long legs. Mixing harvest residues closely to the surface increases soil productivity.

Sugar Beet Harvester: Sugar beet has a nodule shaped root and stem and leaves at the top part above the soil. Sugar beet harvester cuts the top part of sugar beet at a certain height, ensure its rise by loosening the soil. Loads the plant into a conveyor for storage after cleaning from clods and other foreign bodies. It has tractor drawn and self-proceeding types.

Plough: Basic soil processing tool. Used for firstly processing the soil collapsed and compressed in time. Cuts, raises and topples the soil. Thus buries the plant residues left on the surface of field after harvest, weeds and fertilisers sprinkled on the surface of the field into the soil. There are two primary types as mouldboard and disc plough per processor body.

Trailer: Also called as farming cart. Used for transportation of agricultural products. There are single axle and double axle types. Connected to yoke or draw bar behind the tractor by means of a draw pole. There are sizes with 3, 4, 5 tons depending on size of the trailer hitch. Load carrying capacity of those with double axles are higher than those with single axle. Power requirement of the tractor to pull the trailer increases as trailer’s load capacity increases.

Rotary Tiller: Shallowly loosens, crumbles and mixes the soil. Cuts the herbs and stems on the surface of field, mixes the soil uniformly. Also processes the soil processed with plough and makes it ready for planting. Very useful for vineyard and garden operation in particular. Ensures preparation of soil, mixing of stems into the soil for second product. Used for drilling operations and particularly in combination, also processes the soil in strips.

Corn Forage Harvester:
Used for making silage of corn and herbaceous plants. Chops the corn planted in the field in the range between 0.5 cm - 1.5 cm and loads into a trailer or a truck through its funnel. Optionally it can make silage of previously reaped herbaceous plants with herb table.

Pulveriser: Spraying is performed to get productive and quality products by protecting agricultural products from the impact of diseases, pests and weeds. The plant protection machine which distributes agricultural pesticides in liquid state as drops to the plants and is most commonly used machine. Other than types drawn or pulled via tractor, there are manually carried, manually pulled, back carried and self-proceeding types.

Reaper: One of the harvest machines commonly used in grain farming in our country is the sail reaper. Reaps various types of grains as well as bunches the reaped product and leaves on the field as heaps. Also there is binder reaper type reaping, bunching and binding the product.

Potato Planter: Ensure planting potato, being a hoe plant, into the soil with certain distances. There are two types as semi-automatic and automatic. For semi automatic types, machine performs opening and closing of grooves in the soil. Dropping tubers into the soil is performed manually by a worker. For automatic types, machine performs all operations.